Amicus curiae UNHCR – kvinnor – västerländsk livsstil – artikel 10 QD

2019-01-17 Migforum

In this intervention UNHCR will address legal issues of principle pertaining to the scope of the particular social group category in Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention, as well as the categories of religion and political opinion and the issue of concealment in order to avoid persecution. With specific reference to the questions posed by the Council of State to the State Secretary, UNHCR will address the following:

I. Whether women who claim refugee status based on the assumption of “a western lifestyle” / who do not adhere to prevailing cultural and religious norms may constitute “a particular social group” as referred to in Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and Article 10 of the Qualification Directive

II. Whether women who claim refugee status based on the assumption of “a western lifestyle” / who do not adhere to prevailing cultural and religious norms may have a well-founded fear of persecution based on the “political opinion” and “religion” grounds as referred to in Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and Article 10 of the Qualification Directive;

III. Whether women who have assumed “a western lifestyle” / who do not adhere to prevailing cultural and religious norms, can be expected to exercise restraint in order to avoid persecution (i.e. avoiding persecution through concealment or by exercising
discretion);

IV. Whether women who have assumed “a western lifestyle” / who do not adhere to prevailing cultural/religious norms may have a well-founded fear of persecution and a real risk of analogous treatment in violation of Article 3 ECHR upon return to Afghanistan or Somalia;

and

V. Whether an applicant is required to be “convincingly persuasive” for the establishment of a well-founded fear of persecution (in the context of the forward looking nature of the 1951 Convention definition of a refugee)

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